AI Players

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AI Agents that are supposed to be able to function on a level comparable to players.

All games need players. However, there are not always enough people available and willing to play to fit the demands on

This pattern is still a stub.


Already the first computer game, 'OXO' - a computer-based version of Tic-Tac-Toe developed by Alexander S. Douglas, allowed a player to compete against the program itself[1].

Not all AI players need to be controlled by computers. A 'robot', really a set of instructions that a human needed to follow, was introduced in the expansion 'The Gathering Storm' of the card game Race for the Galaxy. This 'robot' allows a single player to player against it as if a two-player instance of the game was being played. An even earlier example of an AI Player was 'MENACE' by Donald Michie. Although not the first AI Player for Tic-Tac-Toe it could get better after each time it played and was first implemented through the use of beans and about 300 matchboxes[2].

Using the pattern

Agents Avatars Units Algorithmic Agents Freedom of Choice Multiplayer Games Zero-Player Games Factions Teams

Diegetic Aspects

Interface Aspects

Narrative Aspects



Can Instantiate

Can Modulate

Can Be Instantiated By

Can Be Modulated By

Possible Closure Effects

Potentially Conflicting With


New pattern created in this wiki.


  1. Link to the EDSAC emulator website, which includes the code for 'OXO'.
  2. Michie, D. 'Trial and Error', in Penguin Science Survey 1961, Vol. 2.