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The one-sentence "definition" that should be in italics.

This pattern is a still a stub.




Using the pattern

Diegetic Aspects

Interface Aspects

Narration Aspects



Instantiates: Conflict, Competition, Gain Ownership, Capture, Tension, Game Mastery, Excluding Goals, Symmetric Goals, Tournaments, Transfer of Control

Modulates: Delivery, Rescue, Higher-Level Closures as Gameplay Progresses, Player Elimination

Instantiated by: Last Man Standing, Tournaments, Enemies, Boss Monsters, Area Control

Modulated by: Achilles' Heels, Timing, Rhythm-Based Actions, Dexterity-Based Actions, Negotiation, Puzzle Solving, Luck, Orthogonal Unit Differentiation, Tiebreakers, Memorizing, Immersion

Left 4 Dead series

Can Instantiate

Combat, Excluding Goals, Gain Ownership, Gameplay Mastery, Narration Structures, Symmetric Goals, Tension

with Evade

Tactical Planning

Can Modulate

Deliver, Higher-Level Closures as Gameplay Progresses

Can Be Instantiated By

Area Control, Capture, Boss Monsters, Enemies, Factions, Last Man Standing, Loyalty, Rhythm-Based Actions, Trick Taking

Can Be Modulated By

Achilles' Heels, Evade, Internal Rivalry, Narration Structures, Tiebreakers

Possible Closure Effects


Potentially Conflicting With



An updated version of the pattern Overcome that was part of the original collection in the book Patterns in Game Design[1].


  1. Björk, S. & Holopainen, J. (2004) Patterns in Game Design. Charles River Media. ISBN1-58450-354-8.