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The one-sentence "definition" that should be in italics.

This pattern is a still a stub.

Zagal et al.[1] describe the phenomenon as: "A wave is a group of usually similar enemy entities that must be avoided or destroyed as they approach the player. There is usually a pause, or respite, between waves. One of the defining aspects of the wave is player interaction results in the end of the game (game over). Segmentation with waves is primarily used to increase the tension of the gameplay."




Using the pattern

Diegetic Aspects

Interface Aspects

Narration Aspects



Enemies Generic Adversaries Challenging Gameplay

Can Instantiate


with ...

Can Modulate


Can Be Instantiated By


Can Be Modulated By


Possible Closure Effects


Potentially Conflicting With



An pattern based upon the description of waves in the paper Rounds, levels, and waves: The early evolution of gameplay segmentation[1].


  1. 1.0 1.1 Zagal, J.P., Fernández-Vara, C. & Mateas, M. (2008). Rounds, levels, and waves: The early evolution of gameplay segmentation. Games and Culture no. 3 (2):175-198.


Jose Zagal, Clara Fernández-Vara, Michael Mateas