- 1 Introduction
- 2 What are design patterns
- 3 How does one use design patterns
- 4 I want to contribute
- 5 Publications
- 6 Other Relevant Publications
- 7 Other Relevant Projects
This is a wiki for developing an extensive gameplay design patterns collection based upon specific game designs, with the aim of supporting the design and analysis of all types of games. The bulk of the content is in individual patterns, with game pages be numerous but with little content (and this will be the case until all planned patterns have been created). It is maintained by Staffan Björk and Jussi Holopainen.
As any project exploring the commonality between different artifacts, the collection makes use of some Underlying Assumptions and Concepts - see also the category of Pattern Related Notes.
What are design patterns
Who is it for?
Since we want to use this for our research (e.g. quote things here which we know won't change) we don't allow everyone to create an account. However, we do wish that everyone can comment on the talk pages and will make that possible as soon as we've figured out how.
How does one use design patterns
The main idea of having gameplay design patterns is to make it easier to express clearly intentions, analyses, and opinions regarding gameplay. See Pattern-Based Methods for more specific suggestions on how to use them.
I want to contribute
Contact Staffan Björk by email if you want to be given an account.
Some useful information is on the Help:Contents page.
See here for plans on how to work on developing the wiki.
These are publications that either use gameplay design patterns, other types of patterns, or similar approaches. Contact Staffan Björk by email if you wish to have something added here.
- Björk, Staffan and Zagal, José P. (2018). Game Design and RolePlaying Games. In Zagal, José P. and Deterding, S. (eds.), Role-Playing Game Studies: Transmedia Foundations. New York: Routledge, 323-336.
- Cowley, B. & Charles, D. (2015). Behavlets: a method for practical player modelling using psychology-based player traits and domain specific features. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, pp 1-50. DOI 10.1007/s11257-016-9170-1.
- Cowley, B., Kosunen, I., Lankoski, P., Kivikangas, J. M., Jarvela, S., Ekman, I., Kemppainen, J. & Ravaja, N. (2014). Experience Assessment and Design in the Analysis of Gameplay. Simulation & Gaming, 45(1), 41–69. doi:10.1177/1046878113513936
- Olsson, C.M., Björk, S. & Dahlskog, S. (2014). The Conceptual Relationship Model. Understanding Patterns and Mechanics in Game Design. Proceeedings of DiGRA 2014.
- Canossa, A., & Nelson, M. & Björk, S. (2014). X-COM: UFO Defense vs. XCOM: Enemy Unknown - Using Gameplay Design Patterns to Understand Game Remakes. Foundations of Digital Games 2014, April 3-7, 2014, Fort Lauderdale, US.
- Dahlskog, S., Björk, S. & Togelius, J. 2015. Patterns, Dungeons and Generators. Foundations of Digital Games Conference, 2015.
- Dristig Stenström, C. & Björk, S. (2013). Understanding combat design in computer role-playing games. In Workshop Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games.
- Zagal, J.P., Björk, S. & Lewis, C. (2013). Dark Patterns in the Design of Games. Foundations of Digital Games 2013, May 14-17, 2013, Crete, Greece.
- Bergström, K. (2012). Playing for Togetherness - Designing for Interaction Rituals through Gaming. Doctoral thesis in Interaction Design, Gothenburg University.</ref>
- Linderoth, J., Björk, S. & Olsson, C. (2012). Should I stay or should I go - Boundary maintaining mechanisms in Left 4 Dead 2. Nordic DiGRA 2012, June 6-8, Tampere, Finland.
- Lundgren, S. & Björk, S. (2012). Neither Playing nor Gaming: Pottering in Games. Foundations of Digital Games 2012, May 29-June 1, 2012 Raleigh, NC, USA.
- Holopainen, J. (2011). Foundations of Gameplay. PhD thesis at School of Computing, Blekinge Institute of Technology. Doctoral Dissertation Series No. 2011-02.
- Bergström, K., Björk, S. & Lundgren, S. (2010). Exploring Aesthetic Gameplay Design Patterns – Camaraderie in Four Games. Paper presentation at Mindtrek 2010. Tampere, Finland.
- Björk, S. (2010). On Making Good Games - Using Player Virtue Ethics and Gameplay Design Patterns to Identify Generally Desirable Gameplay Features. Paper presentation at Nordic DiGRA 2010, Stockholm, Sweden.
- Lankoski, P. (2010). Character-Driven Game Design - A Design Approach and Its Foundations in Character Engagement. D.A. thesis at Aalto University. Publication Series of the School of Art and Design A 101. ISBN 978-952-60-0002-2.
- Lankoski, P. & Björk, S. (2010). Harvesting Gameplay Design Patterns Using Theory Lenses. Presentation at Game Research Methods Seminar. Tampere, Finland.
- Lankoski, P., Johansson, A., Karlsson, B., Björk, S. & Dell’Acqua, P. (2010). AI Design for Believable Characters via Gameplay Design Patterns. In M. M. Cruz-Cunha, V. H. Carvalho and P. Tavares (Eds.), Business, Technological and Social Dimensions of Computer Games: Multidisciplinary Developments. IGI Global. ISBN 1609605675.
- Brusk, J. & Björk, S. (2009). Gameplay Design Patterns for Game Dialogues. Paper presentation at DiGRA 2009: Breaking New Ground: Innovation in Games, Play, Practice and Theory. London, UK.
- Lankoski, P. & Björk, S. (2008). Character-Driven Game Design: Characters, Conflicts, and Gameplay. Paper presentation at GDTW, Sixth International Conference in Game Design and Technology, 2008.
- Holopainen, J. & Björk, S. (2008). Gameplay Design Patterns for Motivation. Paper presentation at ISAGA 2008, Kaunas, Lithuania.
- Goude, D., Björk, S. & Rydmark, M. (2007). Game Design in VR Systems for Rehabilitation. Proceedings of MMVR (Medicine Meets Virtual Reality) 15. Vol 15, pp 146-148.
- Holopainen, J. & Björk, S. (2007) Design patterns are Dead - Long Live Design Patterns. Borries, Friedrich von, Walz, Steffen P., Böttger, Matthias (eds.) (2007), Space Time Play. On the Synergy Between Computer Games, Architecture, and Urbanism. Birkhäuser Publishing, Basel Boston Berlin. ISBN 978-3-7643-8414-2.
- Holopainen, J., Björk, S. & Kuittinen, J. (2007). Teaching Gameplay Design Patterns. Paper presentation at ISAGA 2007, Nijmegen,The Netherlands. Winner of the The ISAGA Outstanding Paper award.
- Lankoski, P. & Björk, S. (2007). Gameplay Design Patterns for Believable Non-Player Characters. Paper presentation at DiGRA 2007, Tokyo, Japan.
- Lankoski, P. & Björk, S. (2007). Gameplay Design Patterns for Social Networks and Conflicts. Paper Presentation at Computer Game Design and Technology Workshop, John Moores University, Liverpool.
- Peitz, J. & Björk, S. (2007). Understanding Pervasive Games through Gameplay Design Patterns. Paper presentation at DiGRA 2007, Tokyo, Japan.
- Björk, S. & Holopainen, J. (2005). Games and Design Patterns. In The Game Design Reader: A Rules of Play Anthology, Salen, K. & Zimmerman, E. (eds). ISBN 0-262-19536-4. MIT Press.
- Björk, S. & Holopainen, J. (2004) Patterns in Game Design. Charles River Media. ISBN 1-58450-354-8.
- Björk, S. & Holopainen, J. (2003) Describing Games - An Interaction-Centric Structural Framework. In Copier, M. & Raessens, J. (Eds.) (2003) Level Up - CD-ROM Proceedings of Digital Games Research Conference 2003, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 4-6 November 2003.
- Björk, S., Lundgren, S. & Holopainen, J. (2003) Game Design Patterns. In Copier, M. & Raessens, J. (Eds.) (2003) Level Up - Proceedings of Digital Games Research Conference 2003, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 4-6 November 2003.
Publications using similar pattern approaches
- Dahlskog, S. & Togelius, J. (2012). Patterns and procedural content generation: revisiting Mario in world 1 level 1. In Workshop Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games.
- Adams, E. & Dormans, J. (2012). Game Mechanics - Advanced Game Design. New Riders Games.
- Cermak-Sassenrath, D. (2012). Experiences with design patterns for oldschool action games. In Proceedings of The 8th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: Playing the System (IE '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, , Article 14 , 9 pages.
- Lewis, C., Wardrip-Fruin, N. & Whitehead, J. (2012). Motivational game design patterns of 'ville games. In Proceedings of the International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games (FDG '12). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 172-179. DOI=10.1145/2282338.2282373 http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2282338.2282373
- Lewis, C. 2014. Irresistible Apps: Motivational Design Patterns for Apps, Games, and Web-based Communities. APRESS.
- Smith, G., Anderson, R., Kopleck, B., Lindblad, Z., Scott, L., Wardell, A., Whitehead, J. & Mateas, M. (2011). Situating quests: design patterns for quest and level design in role-playing games. In Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Interactive Digital Storytelling (ICIDS'11), Mei Si, David Thue, Elisabeth André, James C. Lester, and Joshua Tanenbaum (Eds.). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 326-329. DOI=10.1007/978-3-642-25289-1_40 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25289-1_40
- Hullett, K. & Whitehead, J. (2010). Design patterns in FPS levels. Foundations of Digital Games, June 19–21, 2010, Monterey, California, USA.
- Milam, D. & Seif El Nasr, M. (2010) Analysis of Level Design 'Push & Pull' within 21 games. Foundations of Digital Games, June 19–21, 2010, Monterey, California, USA.
Project reports containing pattern collections
- Björk, S. (2012). Gameplay Design Patterns for Public Games. Report for the Experimedia project.
- Davidsson, O, Peitz, J. & Björk, S. (2004). Game Design Patterns for Mobile Games. Project report to Nokia Research Center.
Other work using similar pattern approaches
- Larsen, S. (2006). Level Design Patterns - Looking for the Principles of Unified Level Design. Report of 12-week student project at the IT-University of Copenhagen.
Other Relevant Publications
- Montola, M., Stenros, J. & Waern, A. 2009. Philosophies and strategies of pervasive larp design. In Larp, the Universe and Everything - An anthology on the theory and practice of live role-playing (larp), published in conjunction with Knutepunkt 2009. (Describes several strategies for pervasive larps in a template rather similar to that of design patterns.)
- Linderoth, J. 2010. Why gamers don't learn more: An ecological approach to games as learning environments. Proceedings of DiGRA Nordic 2010: Experiencing Games: Games, Play, and Players. (The designs for supporting explorative and performative gameplay can easily been translated to design patterns, and several of these are now in the collection on this site.)
- Jesper, J. Sailing the Endless River of Games: The case for Historical Design Patterns. 1st International Joint Conference of DiGRA and FDG 2016.
Other Relevant Projects
- GDPVis graphical presentation of all the patterns in the wiki
- Friendship Patterns collection by Daniel Cook
- Motivational Lenses and Patterns collection by Sebastian Deterding and others.
- RPG Design Patterns collection by Gillian Smith and others (currently focused on level design and quest patterns for RPGs)
- Level Design Patterns collection by Ken Hullett and others
- Pattern Language for Larp Design by J Li & Jason Morningstar
- Machinations, a conceptual framework and diagram tool that allows the effects of game mechanics to be tested through simulations.
- Sound Design in Games, a patterns collection regarding sound design in games. The patterns are available as well-produced cards.
- concepts described on the Nordic LARP wiki have similar scope as gameplay design patterns, and several of them exist as patterns on this wiki
- Many of the concepts on the Giant Bomb wiki are similar to gameplay design patterns and have many examples (other concepts, like the football teams in games that are listed first, are not similar).
- TV Tropes has a large collection of concepts from all types of media which is interconnected and has many examples for each concept. As such it has all the characteristics of a pattern collection but focuses more on narration than gameplay that this collection does.
- Game Ontology Project
- RPG Design Patterns — a wiki based on the book "Design Patterns of Successful Role-Playing Games" by Whitson which does not seem to have been updated since 2010