Rules regarding how to handle situations where players have not followed the rules of trick taking.
Many trick-based card games have rules regarding with cards players can play during one trick. However, it is often impossible to judge if players have intentionally or unintentionally broken these rules until later. Revoke Rules regulate how to handle these situations.
Wikipedia has a page regarding Revoke.
The Revoke Rules in Bridge typically cause one or two tricks to be scored against the offending players but sometimes harsher if the other side is more severely disadvantage than this penalty. Hearts penalizes a revoking player 26 points and giving all other players no points for that round.
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Revoke Rules are introduced in Trick Taking to handle rule breaking regarding how players can play Cards in a trick. These are typically introduced to not break the game if failures to follow the rules have been detected, especially since the failures can be unintentional and since intentional once are difficult to prove as such.
Revoke Rules is a form of Penalty applied to players. Since it allows play to continue after a rules violation has occurred, it can be seen as a form of Sanctioned Cheating but rarely a meaningful one to perform since the penalties tend to be very harsh and the cheating is very often possible to detect among experienced players (since the game states typically can be reconstructed and checked). An exception is in Kingmaker situations where making Revoke Rules apply may be the only way to not make another player a guaranteed winner.
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